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Golden Rice Publications and Presentations

Presentations and Publications

About Golden Rice

Rice terraces
Like rice terraces, progress is a stepwise process with many contributors.

  1. Dubock A (2024) Prejudice, against GMO crops and Golden Rice, in US Academia drove unethical behaviour, with global and detrimental consequences for vitamin A deficiency alleviation. Medical Research Archives, 12(2) . Support material
  2. Wu F, Wesseler J, Zilberman D, Russell RM, Chen C, Dubock AC (2021) Opinion: Allow Golden Rice to save lives. PNAS 118: doi:10.1073/pnas.2120901118
  3. Dubock AC, Wesseler J, Russell RM, Chen C, Zilberman D (2021) Golden Rice, VAD, Covid and Public Health: Saving Lives and Money (IntechOpen)
  4. Dubock A, Potrykus I, Beyer P (2020) We pioneered a technology to save millions of poor children, but a worldwide smear campaign has blocked it. Leapsmag 9 December 2019
  5. Dubock A (2019) Golden Rice: To Combat Vitamin A Deficiency for Public Health . “Vitamin A” [Working title] Queiroz Zepka L, Jacob-Lopes E, Vera De Rosso V. DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.84445
  6. Dubock A (2020) Viewpoint: “On the wrong side of humanity and science” , Greenpeace Philippines launches last gasp effort to derail GMO Golden Rice approval. Original source at Genetic Literacy Project
  7. Ridley M (2019) GM crops like Golden Rice will save the lives of hundreds of thousands of children. Original source: Quillette
  8. Regis E (2019) The True Story of the genetically modified superfood that almost saved millions. Original source at
  9. Dubock A (2017) Golden Rice: instructions for use. Agriculture & Food Security 6:60
  10. Dubock A (2013) Golden Rice: a long-running story at the watershed of the GM debate. Biosciences for Farming in Africa (B4FA).
  11. Potrykus I (2015) From the concept of totipotency to biofortified cereals. Annual review of plant biology 66
  12. Dubock A (2014) The Politics of Golden Rice. GM crops & Food 5:210–222
  13. Sustainable biotechnology: Golden Rice and co-operation between the public and private sector. Conference proceedings: Sustainable Agriculture in the New Millennium. The Impact of Biotechnology on Developing Countries. Friends of the Earth Europe, Oxfam, Bund, Dag Hammarskjold Foundation, Brussels 28-31 May 2000
  14. Elliott M (2017) Agriculture and food security: fifth anniversary. Agriculture & Food Security 6: 58, doi:10.1186/s40066-017-0137-1
  15. Dubock A (2017) An overview of agriculture, nutrition and fortification, supplementation and biofortification: Golden Rice as an example for enhancing micronutrient intake. Agriculture & Food Security, 6(1):59.
  16. Dubock A (2017) Golden Rice: instructions for use. Agriculture & Food Security, 6(1):60
  17. Bollinedi H, Krishnan SGK Prabhu KV, Singh NK, Mishra S, Khurana JP, Singh AK (2017) Molecular and Functional Characterization of GR2-R1 Event Based Backcross Derived Lines of Golden Rice in the Genetic Background of a Mega Rice Variety Swarna. PLoS ONE 12: e0169600, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0169600.
  18. Dr Adrian Dubock: "The present status of Golden Rice" (2014) in the Journal of Huazhong Agricultural University
  19. Dubock A, Executive Secretary of the Golden Rice Humanitarian Board, and Golden Rice Project Manager (2013) "Golden Rice: a long-running story at the watershed of the GM debate", published in B4FA (Bioscences for Farming in Africa).
  20. Abalajen S, Alonto II K, Bitagun K, Capareda J, Diaz J, Miranda R, Palami C, Tiongco-Quinto B (2009) A Report on Training in, and Conduct of Focussed Group Discussions and Results,from four different Agro-Economic Zones of the Philippines where rice cultivation is important, to understand attitudes and influences relevant to the adoption and use of Golden Rice as an additional intervention for alleviation of vitamin A deficiency.Asian Institute of Management and presentation
  21. New Scientist interview with Prof Ingo Potrykus, October 2013: "Golden Rice creator wants to live to see it save lives"
  22. Prof Ingo Potrykus, Golden Rice Board and Network: Is Golden Rice a GMO which will rescue the eyesight and lives of many children? Schools lecture delivered at the AAB conference Agriculture: Africa's "engine for growth" – Plant Science & biotechnology hold the key. Rothamsted Research, Harpenden UK, 12-14 October 2009
  23. Dubock A (2009) Crop conundrum Nutrition Review 67(1):17-20 [Invited Editorial]
  24. Miller, HI (2009) A golden opportunity, squandered . TIBTEC.
    Even when used to make products of negligible risk and that contribute significantly to public health, recombinant DNA technology applied to agriculture has a tough row to hoe. 'Golden Rice', which has been enriched by the addition of genes that allow rice to synthesize beta-carotene (the precursor of vitamin A) in its edible endosperm, has endured resistance from activists and a decade of imposing and gratuitous obstacles to regulatory approval. This is an ominous precedent for other 'biofortified; foods made with recombinant DNA technology.
  25. Mayer JE, Pfeiffer W, Beyer P (2008) Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Curr Opin Plant Biol 11:166-170.
  26. Editorial by Prof Ingo Potrykus in the Electronic Journal of Biotechnology: »GMO Technology and Malnutrition — Public Sector Responsibility and Failure« EJB 15 December 2005 vol 8 issue 3.
  27. Presentation by Prof Ingo Potrykus at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, March 2005 «Golden Rice, vitamin A and blindness — Public responsibility and failure»
  28. Presentation by Prof Ingo Potrykus at BioVision, Lyon, April 2005 «Is GMO over-regulation costing lives? »
  29. Presentation by Dr Jorge Mayer at the FDA Science Forum, Washington DC, 27-28 April 2005 «Development and Impact of Golden Rice»
  30. Presentation by Dr Adrian Dubock at the ICABR Conference in Ravello, Italy, July 2005. «Golden Rice — the Partitioning of Influence» and the corresponding slides to the presentation.
  31. Breeding History, by Tom Hargrove and W Ronnie Coffman. The remarkable history of IR8, the rice variety that changed the face of agriculture across Asia 40 years ago.

Scientific publications around Golden Rice

  1. Biswas PS, Swamy BPM, Kader M, Hossain MA, Boncodin R, Samia M, Hassan ML, Wazuddin M, MacKenzie DJ, Reinke R (2021) Development and Field Evaluation of Near-Isogenic Lines of GR2-EBRRI dhan29 Golden Rice. Frontiers in Plant Science 12: 62.
  2. Swamy BM, Marundan S, Samia M, Ordonio RL, Rebong DB, Miranda R, Alibuyog A, Rebong AT, Tabil MA, Suralta RR, Alfonso AA, Biswas PS, Kader MA, Reinke RF, Boncodin R, MacKenzie DJ (2021) Development and characterization of GR2E Golden rice introgression lines. Scientific reports 11(1):1-2
  3. Oliva N, Cueto-Reaño MF, Trijatmiko KR, Samia M, Welsch R, Schaub P, Beyer P, Mackenzie D, Boncodin R, Reinke R, Slamet-Loedin I (2020) Molecular characterization and safety assessment of biofortified provitamin A rice. Scientific reports 10(1):1-3
  4. Swamy BM, Samia M, Boncodin R, Marundan S, Rebong DB, Ordonio RL, Miranda RT, Rebong AT, Alibuyog AY, Adeva CC, Reinke R (2019) Compositional analysis of genetically engineered GR2E “Golden Rice” in comparison to that of conventional rice. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 67(28):7986-94
  5. Al-Babili S, Beyer P (2005) Golden Rice — Five years on the road — five years to go? Trends in Plant Science 10:565-573.
  6. Al-Babili S, Hugueney P, Schledz M, Welsch R, Frohnmeyer H, Laule O, Beyer P (2000) Identification of a novel gene coding for neoxanthin synthase from Solanum tuberosum. FEBS Lett 485:168-172
  7. Al-Babili S, von Lintig J, Haubruck H, Beyer P (1996) A novel, soluble form of phytoene desaturase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus chromoplasts is Hsp70-complexed and competent for flavinylation, membrane association and enzymatic activation. Plant J 9:601-612
  8. Al-Babili S, Ye X, Lucca P, Potrykus I, Beyer P (2001) Biosynthesis of beta-carotene (provitamin A) in rice endosperm achieved by genetic engineering. Novartis Found Symp 236:219-228; discussion 228-232.
  9. Bartley G, Kumle A, Beyer P, Scolnik P (1993) Functional analysis and purification of enzymes for carotenoid biosynthesis expressed in photosynthetic bacteria. Methods Enzymol 214:374-385
  10. Bartley GE, Scolnik PA, Beyer P (1999) Two Arabidopsis thaliana carotene desaturases, phytoene desaturase and zeta-carotene desaturase, expressed in Escherichia coli, catalyze a poly-cis pathway to yield pro-lycopene. Eur J Biochem 259:396-403
  11. Belingheri L, Beyer P, Kleinig H, Gleizes M (1991) Solubilization and partial purification of squalene synthase from daffodil microsomal membranes. FEBS Lett 292:34-36
  12. Beyer P, Al-Babili S, Ye X, Lucca P, Schaub P, Welsch R, Potrykus I (2002) Golden Rice: Introducing the beta-carotene biosynthesis pathway into rice endosperm by genetic engineering to defeat vitamin A deficiency. J Nutr 132:506S-510
  13. Beyer P, Kroncke U, Nievelstein V (1991) On the mechanism of the lycopene isomerase/cyclase reaction in Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. chromoplasts. J Biol Chem 266:17072-17078
  14. Beyer P, Mayer M, Kleinig H (1989) Molecular oxygen and the state of geometric isomerism of intermediates are essential in the carotene desaturation and cyclization reactions in daffodil chromoplasts. Eur J Biochem 184:141-150
  15. Bonk M, Hoffmann B, von Lintig J, Schledz M, Al-Babili S, Hobeika E, Kleinig H, Beyer P (1997) Chloroplast import of four carotenoid biosynthetic enzymes in vitro reveals differential fates prior to membrane binding and oligomeric assembly. Eur J Biochem 247:942-950
  16. Bonk M, Tadros M, Vandekerckhove J, Al-Babili S, Beyer P (1996) Purification and characterization of chaperonin 60 and heat-shock protein 70 from chromoplasts of Narcissus pseudonarcissus (Involvement of heat-shock protein 70 in a soluble protein complex containing phytoene desaturase). Plant Physiology 111:931-939
  17. Burkhardt P, Beyer P, Wunn J, Klöti A, Armstrong G, Schledz M, von Lintig J, Potrykus I (1997) Transgenic rice (Oryza sativa)endosperm expressing daffodil (Narcissus pseudonarcissus) phytoene synthase accumulates phytoene, a key intermediate of provitamin A biosynthesis. Plant J 11:1071-1078
  18. Diretto G, Tavazza R, Welsch R, Pizzichini D, Mourgues F, Papacchili V, Beyer P, Giuliano G (2006) Metabolic engineering of potato tuber carotenoids through tuber-specific silencing of lycopene epsilon cyclase. BMC Plant Biology 6:13. 
  19. Hoa TTC, Al-Babili S, Schaub P, Potrykus I, Beyer P (2003) Golden indica and japonica rice lines amenable to deregulation. Plant Physiology 133:161-169
  20. Hundle B, Beyer P, Kleinig H, Englert G, Hearst J (1991) Carotenoids of Erwinia herbicola and an Escherichia coli HB101 strain carrying the Erwinia herbicola carotenoid gene cluster. Photochem Photobiol 54:89-93
  21. Hundle B, O'Brien D, Alberti M, Beyer P, Hearst J (1992) Functional expression of zeaxanthin glucosyltransferase from Erwinia herbicola and a proposed uridine diphosphate binding site. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:9321-9325
  22. Hundle B, O'Brien D, Beyer P, Kleinig H, Hearst J (1993) In vitro expression and activity of lycopene cyclase and beta-carotene hydroxylase from Erwinia herbicola. FEBS Lett 315:329-334
  23. Lucca P, Hurrell R, Potrykus I (2001) Genetic engineering approaches to improve the bioavailability and the level of iron in rice grains. Theor Appl Genet 102:392-397.
  24. Mayer JE (2005) The Golden Rice Controversy: Useless Science or Unfounded Criticism. BioScience 55:646-647.
  25. Mayer M, Beyer P, Kleinig H (1990) Quinone compounds are able to replace molecular oxygen as terminal electron acceptor in phytoene desaturation in chromoplasts of Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Eur J Biochem 191:359-363
  26. Mayer JE, Pfeiffer WH, Beyer P (2008) Biofortified crops to alleviate micronutrient malnutrition. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11:166-170.
  27. Nievelstein V, Vandekerchove J, Tadros M, von Lintig J, Nitschke W, Beyer P (1995) Carotene desaturation is linked to a respiratory redox pathway in Narcissus pseudonarcissus chromoplast membranes. Involvement of a 23-KDa oxygen-evolving-complex-like protein. Eur J Biochem 233:864-872
  28. Paine JA, Shipton CA, Chaggar S, Howells RM, Kennedy MJ, Vernon G, Wright SY, Hinchliffe E, Adams JL, Silverstone AL, Drake R (2005) A new version of Golden Rice with increased pro-vitamin A content. Nature Biotechnology 23:482-487.
  29. Potrykus I (2001) Golden Rice and beyond. Plant Physiology 125:1157-1161.
  30. Rabbani S, Beyer P, von Lintig J, Hugueney P, Kleinig H (1998) Induced beta-carotene synthesis driven by triacylglycerol deposition in the unicellular alga Dunaliella bardawil. Plant Physiology 116:1239-1248
  31. Schaub P, Al-Babili S, Beyer P (2005) Why is Golden Rice golden (yellow) and not red. Plant Physiology 138:441-450.
  32. Schledz M, al-Babili S, von Lintig J, Haubruck H, Rabbani S, Kleinig H, Beyer P (1996) Phytoene synthase from Narcissus pseudonarcissus: functional expression, galactolipid requirement, topological distribution in chromoplasts and induction during flowering. Plant J 10:781-92
  33. Schledz M, Seidler A, Beyer P, Neuhaus G (2001) A novel phytyltransferase from Synechocystis sp PCC 6803 involved in tocopherol biosynthesis. FEBS Lett 499:15-20
  34. Schmitz J, West KP, Khatry SK, Wu L, LeClerq SC, Karna SL, Katz J, Sommer A, Pillion J (2012) Vitamin A supplementation in preschool children and risk of hearing loss as adolescents and young adults in rural Nepal: randomised trial cohort follow-up study. BMJ 344:d7962 doi: 10.1136/bmj.d7962.
  35. Schreier PH, Seftor EA, Schell J, Bohnert HJ (1985) The use of nuclear-encoded sequences to direct the light-regulated synthesis and transport of a foreign protein into plant chloroplasts EMBO J 4:25-32
  36. Welsch R, Beyer P, Hugueney P, Kleinig H, von Lintig J (2000) Regulation and activation of phytoene synthase, a key enzyme in carotenoid biosynthesis, during photomorphogenesis. Planta 211:846-854
  37. Welsch R, Medina J, Giuliano G, Beyer P, von Lintig J (2003) Structural and functional characterization of the phytoene synthase promoter from Arabidopsis thaliana. Planta 216:523-534
  38. Ye X, Al-Babili S, Klöti A, Zhang J, Lucca P, Beyer P, Potrykus I (2000) Engineering the provitamin A (beta-carotene) biosynthetic pathway into (carotenoid-free) rice endosperm. Science 287:303-305.
Golden Rice in the field